The largest volume in the total production of milk powder products is for whole milk powder of spray drying and its variants.

The main types of dairy powder products include cow whole milk powder with 20 and 25% fat content, domestic milk powder, cow skim milk powder, cream powder, high-fat cream powder, fermented powder products.

Dairy powder products are made from normalized pasteurized condensed whole or skim milk, cream, buttermilk dried on the spray drying plants. Moisture content in powder products varies from 2 to 7%.

Solubility is one of the main indicators of quality of dairy powder products. Solubility index should be not more than - 0.2-0.5 ml of primary sludge.

Canned powder milk differs from the other canned milk by higher solids content that gives them the highest transportability. Solids content depending on the type of product is 95-98%.

Qualitative characteristics of powder milk may be represented as a set of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters the most important of which are: protein, fat, lactose, minerals, moisture, titratable acidity, solubility index, an index of whey proteins, temperature resistance and microbiological contamination.

Whole milk powder (WMP)

It is fresh whole pasteurized milk dried to a fine powder.

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Whole milk substitutes – WMS – are complex feed formula containing easily digestible necessary substances including fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, sometimes enriched with probiotic microflora.

By the composition milk substitutes are close to whole milk.

The raw products for the production are protein, fat basis and biologically active substances. As protein basis there is used skim milk, buttermilk, whey. Fat-basis - hydrogenated vegetable oils and / or animal fat with a melting point close to milk fat.

To ensure the stability of the fat emulsion there are used emulsifiers-phosphatides, as antioxidants - tocopherol, butyl-oxitoluol. To increase bioavailability there are included vitamins, minerals and vitamin-mineral premix, biologically active supplements or antibiotics.

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Whey protein concentrate is produced from milk whey by treating it by ultrafiltration / diafiltration. During ultrafiltration whey is separated into retentate enriched with whey proteins and ultrafiltrate consisting of water and low molecular substances of whey. Retentate is condensed and dried in the spray drying plant.

Dry WPC typically contain not less than 25% and not more than 80% of proteins.

WPC has emulsifying, water binding, foaming and gelling properties which are explained by the presence of native (non-denaturated) whey proteins.

The main fields of applications of low-protein WPC: bakery products and formula for baking industry, confectionery, dairy, oil and fat industries, dietary products, can be used instead of milk powder in the production of meat, fast food, processed cheese, dairy products, ice cream.

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High content of mineral salts and lactic acid in whey complicates the development of technology for food and dairy products and provides organoleptic and specific defects and restricts its use in food applications.

 

Drying of acid whey with preliminary deoxidation. The process of drying of acid whey is negatively affected by high content of lactic acid. Reducing of the content of lactic acid is possible via its neutralization - such as by sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Curd whey with acidity 620Т is condensed to the content of solids approximately 20-24%, after which to the concentrate with temperature 50-550С the deoxidizer (CaCO3, NaHCO3, NaOH) is added. Deoxidation of the concentrate before drying helps to reduce thermal plasticity of the product, intensifies the drying process but the product has high hygroscopicity and cakes even when stored in a vacuum package. The concentrate is mixed till finishing the reaction and sent for further condensation.

 

Nanofiltration of whey. The use on nanofiltration plant for preliminary condensation of whey allows removing from whey up to 30% of lactic acid, mineral salts and 70% of moisture that facilitates its further processing.

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Milk and fat concentrate is designed for use as a component in the production of whole milk substitutes for calves, products for feeding and also for direct feeding of farm animals.

The basis for the production of milk and fat concentrates is skim milk or formula of skim milk and whey, non-dairy fats, antioxidants, emulsifiers and other additives.

The prepared formula is subjected to heat treatment, condensation, dispersing and drying in the spray drying plant.

Milk and fat concentrates are made of various kinds depending on the physical and chemical parameters and raw products with fat content 20-30-40-50%.

Milk protein concentrate - MPC – is made from skim milk using the method of ultrafiltration/diafiltration. During ultrafiltration skim milk is divided into UV-concentrate enriched with milk proteins and UV-permeate consisting of water and low molecular substances of milk - lactose, vitamins, macro- and microelements.

During diafiltration UV concentrate is diluted with prepared water and is re-directed for ultrafiltration, - as a result there is an increased protein content in the product.

Dry milk protein concentrate is obtained by drying the UV concentrate spray in the spray drying plant. The proteins in MPC are represented by protein compounds of casein and whey proteins. Casein in milk protein concentrate is present in micellar form and whey proteins - in native or denatured form.

WPC contains about 8% of ash as minerals are connected with protein and are not removed by ultrafiltration; has distinct milk taste.

The protein content in MPC can be from 40 to 85% depending on its type.

Areas of application:

  • In the production of yoghurt, sour cream, other dairy products, mayonnaise, sauces, - allows normalizing the protein products, stabilizing product quality, increasing their viscosity.
  • In the production of cheese and curd, granulated curd, -allows increasing the output of cheese and curd by 5-25%, improving their taste, texture, reducing the consumption of milk-clotting enzyme and the loss of raw product.

The powdered nutritional product is produced by drying in the spray drying plants of formula of normalized whole or skim milk and buttermilk with addition of vegetable fat.

Replacement of milk fat to cheaper analogues of vegetable origin - substitutes for milk fat - allows making the product cheaper while maintaining the quality of dairy products. The advantage of vegetable fats is absence of cholesterol and high content of antioxidant - vitamin E, enrichment in essential polysaturated fatty acids.

The product is used as a substitute for whole milk powder in the manufacture of recombined liquid and condensed milk, ice cream, bakery, confectionery, curd products, processed cheese and other products.

Production technology consists of the same operations as the technology of the main types of milk powder products with an additional operation - adding components.

Operations of the technological process may be as follows:

  • Acceptance, preparation of raw product:
    • Preparation of vegetable base
    • Preparation of milk base
  • Emulsification (temperature 65 ± 50 °C, pressure 10-12 MPa)
  • Preparation of normalized formula
  • Pasteurization (85-87 °С, without ageing)
  • Condensation (42-48% of solids)
  • Homogenization (temperature 55 ± 50 °C, pressure 10-15 MPa)
  • Drying
  • Packaging, storage.

 

Cream powder is a nutrition product obtained from cow whole milk which consists of milk fat and has a specific taste, smell, have good solubility. Except for milk fat the cream contains milk proteins, lactose, phosphatides, vitamins and minerals.

The composition of the cream powder:

Moisture content: not more than 4% in vacuum package, no more than 7% in non-vacuum package

Fat content - not less than 44%.

Acidity of reconstituted cream with mass fraction of solids of 14-17% should be not more than 70 °T.

Solubility index for the prime grade - 0.2 cm3, for the first grade - 0.6 cm3.

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Demineralized whey powder is the product obtained by drying cheese, curd or casein whey from which previously all minerals are removed. The grade of demineralization may be from 30 to 90%; it may be carried out by means of ion exchange, electro dialysis or nanofiltration. In case of using just the nanofiltration plant the whey is partially demineralized; the grade of demineralization is 30-35%.

Demineralized whey powder is used in the composition of milk products as an alternative to skim milk powder in order to enrich with protein and lactose, allows reducing the production cost of finished products, is used in the production of meat products, confectionery, bakery production and as the basis for breast milk substitutes.

In the process of demineralization of whey its titratable acidity decreases and the content of nitrogenous substances as the result of reducing the content of organic acids and acid salts, amino acids, urea and ash; the solubility of whey and its sweetness increases as well as organoleptic properties. Curd and casein whey are suitable for use in food applications.

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Lactose – milk sugar - is made of several types and grades: pharmacopoeial, refined, nutritional, raw sugar (technical lactose).

Milk raw sugar is made of several grades depending on the content of lactose, water and nitrogen compounds: improved, prime and first grade.

Milk sugar is produced in several ways: condensation of whey with the following crystallization of lactose from supersaturated solution or drying of milk whey that was preliminary purified by membrane methods.

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The raw product for the production of whey powder is whey obtained from the cheese production (cheese whey), cottage cheese (curd whey) and casein (casein whey).

Contents of lactose, lactic acid and salt in whey are the main factors that determine the modes and methods of its processing and, finally, - the duration and quality of drying.

Preparation of raw product before drying should aim at reducing the content of lactic acid and conversion of lactose contained in whey from the amorphous to the crystalline state.

This allows:

  • improving and greatly simplifying the process of whey drying;
  • improving the performance of the drying plant;
  • obtaining a product of high quality with good flowability, low hygroscopicity, non-caking during storage;
  • increasing output of the finished product.

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For production of skim milk powder there are used skim milk, buttermilk obtained at production of sweet  butter.

Norms for skim milk powder.

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