Whole milk substitutes – WMS – are complex feed formula containing easily digestible necessary substances including fats, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, sometimes enriched with probiotic microflora.

By the composition milk substitutes are close to whole milk.

The raw products for the production are protein, fat basis and biologically active substances. As protein basis there is used skim milk, buttermilk, whey. Fat-basis - hydrogenated vegetable oils and / or animal fat with a melting point close to milk fat.

To ensure the stability of the fat emulsion there are used emulsifiers-phosphatides, as antioxidants - tocopherol, butyl-oxitoluol. To increase bioavailability there are included vitamins, minerals and vitamin-mineral premix, biologically active supplements or antibiotics.

Dry milk substitutes composition:

  • 80% - skim milk solids, whey;
  • 15% - hydrogenated vegetable oils and animal fats;
  • 5% - phosphatide concentrates.

 

In animal breeding they are used in the reduced form.

Depending on the type of product they contain:

  • Fat mass fraction - from 17 to 42.5%
  • Acidity in reduced form - 17 to 80 °T,
  • Solubility index - from 0.8 to 1,3 cm3 of raw sludge.

 

Some process steps are stipulated by raw product, components and methods of emulsification and other.

According to the method of production there are distinguished:

  • dry substitutes of whole and skim milk;
  • pasty;
  • liquid.

 

The technological process of the production of dry WMS:

  • acceptance, evaluation of quality of raw product;
  • accounting the masses;
  • cleaning, cooling;
  • preparation of milk formula;
  • heat treatment of the formula 85-90 °С, 15 seconds;
  • condensation to the concentration of 40-43% of solids;
  • preparation of fat components, their melting at the temperature 45-50 °С;
  • preparation of the formula by recipe;
  • homogenization at 55 °С, pressure 10-15 MPa;
  • drying;
  • cooling and packaging.

 

Preparation of components:

Animal and hydrogenated fats are melted, phosphatide concentrates are added to molten fat, in order to slow down oxidation phenolic antioxidants or santochinum are added. The mixture of fats and emulsifiers is brought to a homogenized consistency and is sent by the metering pump for normalization of the formula of WMS. Determined by the recipe fat-soluble vitamins A and E, antibiotics are added to the molten mass of fats and phosphatide concentrate while stirring. At continuous stirring from the vacuum evaporator condensed skim milk or its mixture with raw milk are introduced.

Preparation and emulsifying of fat components is the basic process that effects on the quality of the product.

For the emulsification of the concentrate there are used homogenizers or emulsifiers. The formula after emulsification is fed into the tank of the spray drying plant in which it is actively stirred in order to prevent settling of fat and to ensure homogeneity of the product by the composition.Drying is carried out at the temperature of the heating air at the inlet into the drying tower 180-1850С, at the outlet - 85-900С. Regenerated milk - multicomponent WMS used for watering young stock of farm animals.

 

It is produced in two ways:

  • dry mixing of the components;
  • drying of components made according to the recipe.

 

Skim milk basis is mixed by the recipe with vitamins and mineral premixes. Premix is a mixture of emulsifying agents, antibiotics, vitamins, minerals and fillers.

The composition of the regenerated milk: skim milk powder, soy flour, meat and fish hydrolysates, animal fats, phosphatide concentrate, starch.

 

Technological scheme of regenerated milk by dry mixing:

  • acceptance, preparation of fats by the recipe;
  • preparation of the mixture of dry components;
  • preparation of liquid and dry premixes;
  • preparation of the mixture of dry components by the recipe of regenerated milk;
  • packaging, labeling, storage.

 

Technological scheme of regenerated milk by drying the components:

  • pasteurization of raw product 85-90 °С, without ageing;
  • condensation in the vacuum evaporator at 50-80 °С to content in the mixture of 42-45 % of solids;
  • filtering of the mixture;
  • preparation of emulsion, vitamin, mineral premixes, their addition into the condensed mixture;
  • preparation of milk and fat mixture heated up to 70 °С;
  • homogenization, pressure 10-12 MPa;
  • drying in the spray drying plant;
  • cooling of dry regenerated milk to 20 °С;
  • temporary storage;
  • mixing and stirring;
  • packing, packaging, storage.

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